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 الأشواط الاربعة فى محرك الإحتراق

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Important Eng
Important Eng
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ذكر عدد الرسائل : 2997
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تاريخ التسجيل : 20/10/2007

مُساهمةموضوع: الأشواط الاربعة فى محرك الإحتراق   الإثنين فبراير 18, 2008 12:10 am

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INTAKE STROKE

The first stroke in the sequence is the intake stroke (fig. 12-4). During this stroke, the piston is moving downward and the intake valve is open. This downward movement of the piston produces a partial vacuum in the cylinder, and air and fuel rush into the cylinder past the open intake valve. This action produces a result similar to that which occurs when you drink through a straw. You produce a partial vacuum in your mouth, and the liquid moves up through the straw to fill the vacuum.

COMPRESSION STROKE

When the piston reaches bottom dead center at the end of the intake stroke (and is therefore at the bottom of the cylinder) the intake valve closes and seals the upper end of the cylinder. As the crankshaft continues to rotate, it pushes the connecting rod up against the piston. The piston then moves upward and compresses the combustible mixture in the cylinder. This action is known as the compression stroke (fig. 12-4). In gasoline engines, the mixture is compressed to about one-eighth of its original volume. (In a diesel engine the mixture may be compressed to as little as one-sixteenth of its original volume.) This compression of the air-fuel mixture increases the pressure within the cylinder. Compressing the mixture in this way makes it more combustible; not only does the pressure in the cylinder go up, but the temperature of the mixture also increases.

POWER STROKE

As the piston reaches top dead center at the end of the compression stroke (and is therefore at the top of the cylinder), the ignition system produces an electric spark. The spark sets fire to the fuel-air mixture. In burning, the mixture gets very hot and expands in all directions. The pressure rises to about 600 to 700 pounds per square inch. Since the piston is the only part that can move, the force produced by the expanding gases forces the piston down. This force, or thrust, is carried through the connecting rod to the crankpin on the crankshaft. The crankshaft is given a powerful twist. This is known as the power stroke (fig. 12-4). This turning effort, rapidly repeated in the engine and carried through gears and shafts, will turn the wheels of a vehicle and cause it to move along the highway.

EXHAUST STROKE

After the fuel-air mixture has burned, it must be cleared from the cylinder. Therefore, the exhaust valve opens as the power stroke is finished and the piston starts back up on the exhaust stroke (fig. 12-4). The piston forces the burned gases of the cylinder past the open exhaust valve. The four strokes (intake, compression, power, and exhaust) are continuously repeated as the engine runs.

ENGINE CYCLES

Now, with the basic knowledge you have of the parts and the four strokes of the engine, let us see what happens during the actual running of the engine. To produce sustained power, an engine must repeatedly complete one series of the four strokes: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. One completion of this series of strokes is known as a cycle.

Most engines of today operate on four-stroke cycles, although we use the term four-cycle engines to refer to them. The term actually refers to the four strokes of the piston, two up and two down, not the number of cycles completed. For the engine to operate, the piston continually repeats the four-stroke cycle.

TWO-CYCLE ENGINE

In the two-cycle engine, the entire series of strokes (intake, compression, power, and exhaust) takes place in two piston strokes.

A two-cycle engine . Every other stroke in this engine is a power stroke. Each time the piston moves down, it is on the power stroke. Intake, compression, power, and exhaust still take place; but they are completed in just two strokes. Figure 12-5 shows that the intake and exhaust ports are cut into the cylinder wall instead of at the top of the combustion chamber as in the four-cycle engine. As the piston moves down on its power stroke, it first uncovers the exhaust port to let burned gases escape and then uncovers the intake port to allow a new fuel-air mixture to enter the combustion chamber. Then on the upward stroke, the piston covers both ports and, at the same time, compresses the new mixture in preparation for ignition and another power stroke.

In the engine , the piston is shaped so that the incoming fuel-air mixture is directed upward, thereby sweeping out ahead of it the burned exhaust gases. Also, there is an inlet into the crankcase through which the fuel-air mixture passes before it enters the cylinder. This inlet is opened as the piston moves upward, but it is sealed as the piston moves downward on the power stroke. The downward moving piston slightly compresses the mixture in the crankcase. That gives the mixture enough pressure to pass rapidly through the intake port as the piston clears this port. This action improves the sweeping-out, or scavenging, effect of the mixture as it enters and clears the burned gases from the cylinder through the exhaust port.
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